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And the cities grew palatine napa crashed rolling 77 certified of the corrections officers and staff is strikingly important as well. Jails are different from prisons. Jails are places of temporary housing, where inmates live for days, weeks, or months. are awaiting trial or bond, and thus have future. Jails are noisy places, often seeming chaotic and frightening to new arrestees. They are overseen by counties, with local control withn broad accreditation standards. Most jails 't have -house medical or mental health services beyond a nurse, and educational and vocational programs are rare. Prisons, on the other hand, are -term residences, communities ways. The inmates are convicted felons rather than a mix of arrestees and misdemeanants. Each has been sentenced to confinement, and thus has a much more predictable future. Prisons are quieter than jails, usually much more organized. They are overseen by state or federal governments and thus less vulnerable to local politics. Prisons have full-time medical and mental health services, with psychiatrists and psychologists routinely on staff Practicing a jail or prison is a great way to serve one's community and society, and can be a rewarding career. of the above issues are outlined a recent article by Aaron Levin Other information about jail and prison practice, and careers correctional mental health and psychiatry, is available from the National Commission on Correctional Care at http: Competence for execution is a hotly debated topic, though one that is often more theoretical than practical, given the very small number of persons actually executed the U.S. each year. Few psychiatrists, even forensic subspecialists, have actually been directly involved execution-related matters which death was likely. Nevertheless, the topic is widely discussed our field, amply litigated, and affects the lives of some people who do not deserve to be put to death even after being convicted of a capital offense. 1985, Gregory Thompson was sentenced to death for capital murder by a Tennessee court. He eventually appealed the death sentence on grounds of current and chronic mental illness which rendered him unable to undertand the fact of the impending execution and the reason for it All evaluating experts concurred that he lacked the requisite capacity. The trial court denied his petition for evidentiary hearing, based on its finding that his merely being of his death sentence for the murder, coupled with certain past statements about the crime and sentence, indicated compliance with a cognitive standard. The Court acknowledged his psychosis, but ruled that his delusions about the upcoming execution were, themselves, evidence that his knowledge and understanding were sufficient for purposes of competence. Tennessee state courts generally upheld the trial court. A 2004 federal petition led to a stay and affirmation of his petition by the federal Sixth Circuit. The State appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court which held that the Sixth Circuit had abused its discretion late 2005, the Tennesee Supreme Court was allowed to set a new execution date. Thompson petitioned the court to consider changes his mental condition since the earlier rulings. Additional challenges and appeals took place, and eventually the Sixth Circuit ruled that the Tennessee courts improperly ignored evidence that Thompson had met the necessary threshold showing of incompetence, and that he was owed evidentiary hearing. That federal court noted that although it could not rule on his competence for execution, there was strong suggestion that his mental illness was serious and relevant to it. :263, 2011.) Due Process and Competence to Stand Trial California The California Supreme Court affirmed that state's procedure of requiring criminal defendants to prove their incompetence to stand trial once the topic has been raised. The defense argued that the prosecution should have to prove trial competency beyond reasonable doubt. Although appellate court agreed, the State Supreme Court found for the prosecution and ruled that the burden of proof lies with the defendant, to a prepopnderance of the evidence. Additional Jeopardy for Sexually Violent Predator Commitment The Nebraska Supreme Court recently followed a California appeals decision determining that persons convicted of sexually-related crimes but not adjudicated offenders are nevertheless eligible for indefinite civil commitment as sexually violent predators Notice of SVP commitment most states comes during the last year of a convicted offender's sentence. The person is notified of the State's intent to pursue commitment and when committed the commitments are almost always successful for the prosecution enter a secure inpatient facility where treatment is more or less provided with little of rehabilitation, cure, or eventual release. the Nebraska case, a defendant convicted almost 20 years before but determined not to be a mentally disordered offender by then-defined criteria, was ruled eligible for SVP commitment, based on the premise that changes mental health and dangerousness assessments should be considered when determining risk of recidivism and threat to the public, even after one's criminal sentence has been completed. The California case, employed similar thinking. Treating Clinicians and Child Custody Matters A request from a colleague prompted me to reiterate some principles often expressed on this site about treating clinicians